By: Dr. Lisa Linardatos, Clinical Psychologist
Photos: Sarah Glaser and Lisa Linardatos

I never really articulated my love of nature until relatively recently. I didn’t grow up participating in many organized outdoor activities, and I never considered myself a particularly “outdoorsy” person. I knew when I moved from my rural hometown to the city I missed being able to see the milky way on a summer night, but the diversity and excitement afforded by a big city mostly overshadowed that loss. As I get older though, I find myself more and more drawn to nature, and when I take the time to appreciate it, it feels like a gift. I delight in it.

Inevitably, as a psychologist, I became curious about how being in nature affects people. As a researcher, I did not want to talk about the benefits of nature to my clients unless I felt there was adequate data to support such claims. Sure enough, as I describe below, being in nature not only positively affects our physical and mental health, but the benefits likely reach beyond the individual and have broader environmental and societal implications. Moreover, therapy is unfortunately inaccessible to many given its cost and long waiting lists. I also find therapy somewhat limiting in its usual format of weekly, one-hour sessions, so I’m always on the look-out for how clients can change their everyday environments to improve their mental health, and being in nature is one way to do so. Being in nature is a relatively simple and accessible way to better our well-being and mental health, and in giving it a try we have little to lose.

How is being in nature helpful for us?

Physical Health

I think many of us intuitively know that being in nature is helpful, but what does the science say about how it helps us? In terms of physical health, studies have linked exposure to nature to decreased diseases and a longer life span. Researchers Jolanda Maas and colleagues did a study where they looked at the medical records of 345143 people living in the Netherlands, and found that people living within a one-kilometre radius of a green space were less likely to suffer from various diseases including cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory disease, and neurological disease, as well as other health problems such as diabetes, migraines, asthma, and urinary tract infections (1). Also, at least one study has shown that living near green space is associated with living longer, even if people didn’t use the green space, and possibly has the most benefits for lower income individuals (2).

Mental Health and Cognitive Functioning

In addition to the slew of evidence linking exposure to nature and physical health, much research has found a link between nature and mental health. People living within a one-kilometre radius of green space experienced less anxiety and depression (1). Even just a short walk can affect our thoughts and feelings. For example, in a study done around Stanford, California, 60 participants were randomly assigned to a 50-minute walk either in a natural setting or an urban environment. Those who did the nature walk reported less anxiety, rumination, and negative mood and they were more likely to hang on to their positive mood (3). Similarly, a survey done on of over 10000 people in England has linked living in urban areas with more green space to greater life satisfaction (4).

"There are always flowers for those who want to see them."      
Henri Matisse

Our brains also seem to perform better when we’re exposed to nature. Our working memory is better, and we score higher on tasks that require concentration and “directed attention” (focussing on one specific thing while inhibiting distractions) (5).  Even children with ADHD concentrated better after a 20-minute walk in the park vs. a walk through the city centre or a walk through a neighbourhood (6).

Social and Environmental

There is an abundance of research showing that social support, social cohesion (i.e., shared norms and values and a sense of belonging and feeling accepted by one’s group), and a sense of community are beneficial for mental health (7). Common green spaces have been found to facilitate social contact, and could thereby increase a sense of community (8). That is, if you’re living in a neighbourhood where there’s a park, or an apartment building that has a shared garden or courtyard, you are more likely to have informal social contact with your neighbours. Some health professionals and local residents in London are capitalizing on the therapeutic benefits of gardening, and have created a network of food-growing gardens in various health care and hospital settings, where patients learn how to grow food that is then used to feed the hospital patients. As discussed in the article (check it out here), gardening can be used as way to reduce social isolation, not to mention depression, anxiety, stress, and disease, and may even increase the well-being of patients with dementia.

Being in nature might also make us nicer to others and nicer to the environment. In one study, people who watched a nature video were more cooperative and indicated a greater willingness to engage in environmentally sustainable behaviours compared to people who watched a video on architecture (9). And people who are exposed to nature vs. man-made environments reported valuing community and close relationships more and were more generous with their money (10). We also know that being nice to others increases our own positive emotions, such as happiness (11). I love these findings because it shows how far-reaching the benefits of nature can be. That is, exposure to nature seems to benefit us on a personal level, but also has environmental and societal benefits.

Spirituality and Connectedness

Many people also find that being in nature is a spiritual experience, and can facilitate the feeling of being connected to something greater, thereby decreasing feelings of loneliness. Feelings of awe, which is often elicited during exposure to nature (12), have been linked to an expanded perception of time and a greater wiliness to volunteer one’s time to help others (13). Awe-inspiring moments can also help us keep things in perspective, allowing us to feel like our problems are relatively small and fostering the belief that we can cope. For a dose of “awe”, check out the time lapse video below taken from one of Spain’s highest mountain.

"The clearest way into the Universe is through a forest wilderness."    
John Muir

Being in nature also provides a great opportunity to practice mindfulness, a particular state of present-moment, sensory awareness linked to lots of positive mental and physical health benefits. Check out my colleague Natsumi’s blog post for more on mindfulness: Mindfulness: An Introductory Guide. And here’s a summary of research on mindfulness.

Fun tip: To learn more about my natural surroundings and to facilitate mindful moments, I bought this fun and easy-to-use field guide, Small Adventures Journal. It makes you feel like a kid again!

Why is being in nature beneficial?

What is it about nature that is beneficial for our well-being and health? One theory is based on the idea that in urban settings, we have more social stress, and this frequent processing of social stress may put us at risk for mental health issues (14). For example, it’s probable that in an urban setting we more often experience what is referred to as social evaluative threat - feeling judged and negatively evaluated by others – than in a rural setting.

Attention Restoration Theory (ART), on the other hand, suggests that urban environments cause mental fatigue as we’re often having to control where we direct our attention and filter out irrelevant information (15, 16). According to ART, natural environments and nature scenes (think sunsets, butterflies, and streams) are not overly demanding and easily engage our attention, and promote a sense of “fascination” and “being away” (15), thereby allowing us to rest our attentional resources.

Another theory, the Stress Reduction Theory (SRT), suggests that being in a natural environment reduces stress by activating our parasympathetic nervous system, which is the system responsible for calming us down (17). In support of SRT, studies have shown that viewing photos and videos of nature scenes decrease stress as measured by various physiological indicators, such as heart rate (18), and walking in parks and forests has been shown to reduce cortisol levels (19).

Although more research needs to be done to clarify, for example, how much exposure to nature is needed to make a difference in one’s health, benefits from nature exposure have been found across different mediums (e.g., images, window views, urban parks, rural areas) (5), for a variety of durations of exposure (minutes to hours to days to years) (20) and for a variety of things - mental and physical health, attention, concentration, and working memory (21). One of my favourite articles summarizing some of these findings is from National Geographic: This is Your Brain on Nature (22).

"In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks."       
John Muir

Nature in and around Montreal

As many of us have busy schedules and some of us live in urban settings, it can be difficult to access nature. While writing this blog post, I thought it might be helpful to give readers some ideas of where to find nature in the Montreal area. So, I asked my Facebook friends for recommendations of nature spots in and around Montreal. Many graciously replied and below are their responses. I was delighted to read their responses and hear not just about great nature spots, but how nature fuels the imagination.

  • Parc nature de l'ile de la visitation
  • My daughter and I love Lachine rapids in Verdun. Lots of bird species, plants, trees, water stream changes a lot which is so exciting to watch for kids especially.
  • Parc des Rapides
  • Maybe a classic... But I always love a little excursion in Parc Mont Royal.
  • Morgan Arboretum is nice, and always love iles de boucherville and mont. st. hilaire.
  • Dawson college has an amazing peace garden. It's small but it completely lives up to its name! It is gorgeous! Parc lafontaine is nice and in the fall the botanical garden is magnificent (in a groomed kind of way). The absolute outdoor spot is mont saint-sauveur. I can get lost there for days (or I wish I could hehe)
  • Ps: the Dawson peace garden is a great green oasis in the middle of the concrete of the city.
  • Champ des possibles!
  • Canal walks daily keep me sane!
  • I love walks along the canal - and also love the sweet fairyland alleyways of NDG in the spring and summer.
  • Westmount park, Mont-Royal, Lachine canal, Nuns Island at the path along the water
  • Love this! #naturebath
  • The Stereo's back fire escape has one of the most breathtaking sunrises....
  • This may be a little gauche, but I love the cemeteries on the mountain...all of them. The back of the Mont-Royal cemetery (I think) has that new lookout which no one goes to and in the summer the smell of hot wildflowers is intoxicating. And all of the "secret" off-road trails on the mountain.
  • I love to get under the weeping willows at Parc Jarry. If there's people around, I use their trunks as "support for stretches"...but really I just want to pet them and be in contact with them! I will also give a love tap to massive old trees that are slowly uprooting the sidewalk in places. It's fun to just pause and look up up up from the bottom of the trunk and breathe it all in.
  • Oh! Actually, I think I also love the contrast here in Montreal. Like the tiny urban parks or even the cedar hedges in my backyard. Sometimes I feel like the proximity to streets/cars/city-ness makes me really appreciate the green even more. Like the front of our house is on a big-ish street, but when I get to the ruelle out back, I like to pretend that I've transitioned to our cottage.
  • Les îles de Boucherville are super pretty, the Botanical Gardens are lovely, Mont St Bruno parc for a child friendly hike, any of the state parks especially when the fall colours are here...

For more suggestions on how to get to know nature, check out these 10 tips from David Suzuki. You can also learn more about his 30 x 30 nature challenge (30 minutes a day in nature for 30 days) here. Montrealers also have the opening of this “secret garden” to look forward to.

Last but not least, for some added inspiration, check out this audio clip of birds singing recently recorded from a balcony in the heart of Montreal.


Lisa Linardatos is a clinical psychologist in Westmount, Montreal, Quebec, at Connecte Montreal Psychology Group. The team at Connecte loves writing about ways to boost our mental health and bring psychology into our everyday lives. For more helpful tips, check out Connecte’s blogspodcast, follow @connectepsychology on Instagram or @ConnecteMTL on Twitter, or like us on Facebook.


References

1. Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., de Vries, S., Spreeuwenberg, P., Schellevis, F. G., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2009). Morbidity is related to a green living environment. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 63(12), 967-973.

2. Mitchell, R., & Popham, F. (2008). Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. The Lancet, 372(9650), 1655-1660.

3. Bratman, G. N., Daily, G. C., Levy, B. J., & Gross, J. J. (2015). The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition. Landscape and Urban Planning, 138, 41-50.

4. White, M. P., Alcock, I., Wheeler, B. W., & Depledge, M. H. (2013). Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? A fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psychological science.

5. Berman, M. G., Jonides, J., & Kaplan, S. (2008). The cognitive benefits of interacting with nature. Psychological Science, 19(12), 1207–1212. 

6. Taylor, A. F., & Kuo, F. E. (2009). Children with attention deficits concentrate better after walk in the park. Journal of attention disorders,12(5), 402-409.

7. Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Med, 7(7).

8. Kuo, F. E., Sullivan, W. C., Coley, R. L., & Brunson, L. (1998). Fertile ground for community: Inner-city neighborhood common spaces. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(6), 823-851.

9. Zelenski, John M., Raelyne L. Dopko, and Colin A. Capaldi. Cooperation is in our nature: Nature exposure may promote cooperative and environmentally sustainable behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42 (2015): 24-31.

10. Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(10), 1315-1329.

11. Nelson, S. K., Layous, K., Cole, S. W., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2016). Do Unto Others or Treat Yourself? The Effects of Prosocial and Self-Focused Behavior on Psychological Flourishing.

12. Shiota, M.N., Keltner, D., & Mossman, A. (2007). The nature of awe: Elicitors, appraisals, and effects on self-concept. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 944-963.

13. Rudd, M., Vohs, K. D., & Aaker, J. (2012). Awe expands people’s perception of time, alters decision making, and enhances well-being. Psychological science, 23(10), 1130-1136.

14. Lederbogen, F., Kirsch, P., Haddad, L., Streit, F., Tost, H., Schuch, P., ... & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2011). City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans. Nature, 474(7352), 498-501.

15. Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182.

16. Kaplan, R. & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. New York: Cambridge.

17. Ulrich, R. S. (1981). Natural versus urban scenes some psychophysiological effects. Environment and behavior, 13(5), 523-556.

18. Gladwell, V. F., Brown, D. K., Barton, J. L., Tarvainen, M. P., Kuoppa, P., Pretty, J., et al. (2012). The effects of views of nature on autonomic control. European Journal ofApplied Physiology, 112(9), 3379–3386.

19. Tyrväinen, L., Ojala, A., Korpela, K., Lanki, T., Tsunetsugu, Y., & Kagawa, T. (2014). The influence of urban green environments on stress relief measures: A field experiment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 1–9.

20. Bratman, G. N., Hamilton, J. P., & Daily, G. C. (2012). The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1249, 118–136.

21. Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., De Vries, S., & Frumkin, H. (2014). Nature and health.Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 207-228.

22. Williams, F. (2016, January). This is Your Brain on Nature. National geographic, 48-67.

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